While testing a web application in development, you notice that the web server does not properly ignore the â€œdot dot slashâ€ (../) character string and instead returns the file listing of a folder structure of the server.
What kind of attack is possible in this scenario?
Appropriately controlling admittance to web content is significant for running a safe web worker. Index crossing or Path Traversal is a HTTP assault which permits aggressors to get to limited catalogs and execute orders outside of the web workerâ€™s root registry.
Web workers give two primary degrees of security instruments
An Access Control List is utilized in the approval cycle. It is a rundown which the web workerâ€™s manager uses to show which clients or gatherings can get to, change or execute specific records on the worker, just as other access rights.
The root registry is a particular index on the worker record framework in which the clients are kept. Clients canâ€™t get to anything over this root.
For instance: the default root registry of IIS on Windows is C:\Inetpub\wwwroot and with this arrangement, a client doesnâ€™t approach C:\Windows yet approaches C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\news and some other indexes and documents under the root catalog (given that the client is confirmed by means of the ACLs).
The root index keeps clients from getting to any documents on the worker, for example, C:\WINDOWS/system32/win.ini on Windows stages and the/and so on/passwd record on Linux/UNIX stages.
This weakness can exist either in the web worker programming itself or in the web application code.
To play out a registry crossing assault, all an assailant requires is an internet browser and some information on where to aimlessly discover any default documents and registries on the framework.
What an assailant can do if your site is defenselessWith a framework defenseless against index crossing, an aggressor can utilize this weakness to venture out of the root catalog and access different pieces of the record framework. This may enable the assailant to see confined documents, which could give the aggressor more data needed to additional trade off the framework.
Contingent upon how the site access is set up, the aggressor will execute orders by mimicking himself as the client which is related with â€œthe siteâ€. Along these lines everything relies upon what the site client has been offered admittance to in the framework.
Illustration of a Directory Traversal assault by means of web application codeIn web applications with dynamic pages, input is generally gotten from programs through GET or POST solicitation techniques. Here is an illustration of a HTTP GET demand URL
GET http://test.webarticles. com/show.asp?view=oldarchive.html HTTP/1.1
With this URL, the browser requests the dynamic pageÂ show.aspÂ from the server and with it also sends the parameterÂ viewÂ with the value ofÂ oldarchive.html. When this request is executed on the web server,Â show.aspÂ retrieves the fileÂ oldarchive.htmlÂ from the serverâ€™s file system, renders it and then sends it back to the browser which displays it to the user. The attacker would assume that show.asp can retrieve files from the file system and sends the following custom URL.
GET http://test.webarticles.com/show.asp?view=../../../../../Windows/system.ini HTTP/1.1
This will cause the dynamic page to retrieve the fileÂ system.iniÂ from the file system and display it to the user. The expressionÂ ../Â instructs the system to go one directory up which is commonly used as an operating system directive. The attacker has to guess how many directories he has to go up to find the Windows folder on the system, but this is easily done by trial and error.
Example of a Directory Traversal attack via web serverApart from vulnerabilities in the code, even the web server itself can be open to directory traversal attacks. The problem can either be incorporated into the web server software or inside some sample script files left available on the server.
The vulnerability has been fixed in the latest versions of web server software, but there are web servers online which are still using older versions of IIS and Apache which might be open to directory traversal attacks. Even though you might be using a web server software version that has fixed this vulnerability, you might still have some sensitive default script directories exposed which are well known to hackers.
For example, a URL request which makes use of the scripts directory of IIS to traverse directories and execute a command can be
GET http://server.com/scripts/..%5c../Windows/System32/cmd.exe?/c+dir+c:\ HTTP/1.1
The request would return to the user a list of all files in theÂ C:\Â directory by executing theÂ cmd.exeÂ command shell file and run the commandÂ dir c:\Â in the shell. TheÂ %5cÂ expression that is in the URL request is a web server escape code which is used to represent normal characters. In this caseÂ %5cÂ represents the characterÂ \.
Newer versions of modern web server software check for these escape codes and do not let them through. Some older versions however, do not filter out these codes in the root directory enforcer and will let the attackers execute such commands.
When purchasing a biometric system, one of the considerations that should be reviewed is the processing speed. Which of the following best describes what it is meant by processing?
Bobby, an attacker, targeted a user and decided to hijack and intercept all their wireless communications. He installed a fake communication tower between two authentic endpoints to mislead the victim. Bobby used this virtual tower to interrupt the data transmission between the user and real tower, attempting to hijack an active session, upon receiving the users request. Bobby manipulated the traffic with the virtual tower and redirected the victim to a malicious website. What is the attack performed by Bobby in the above scenario?
aLTEr attacks are usually performed on LTE devices Attacker installs a virtual (fake) communication tower between two authentic endpoints intending to mislead the victim This virtual tower is used to interrupt the data transmission between the user and real tower attempting to hijack the active session.
John is investigating web-application firewall logs and observers that someone is attempting to inject the following:
buff[>o] - 'a':
What type of attack is this?
Buffer overflow this attack is an anomaly that happens when software writing data to a buffer overflows the bufferâ€™s capacity, leading to adjacent memory locations being overwritten. In other words, an excessive amount of information is being passed into a container that doesnâ€™t have enough space, which information finishes up replacing data in adjacent containers.Buffer overflows are often exploited by attackers with a goal of modifying a computerâ€™s memory so as to undermine or take hold of program execution.
Whatâ€™s a buffer?A buffer, or data buffer, is a neighborhood of physical memory storage wont to temporarily store data while itâ€™s being moved from one place to a different . These buffers typically sleep in RAM memory. Computers frequently use buffers to assist improve performance; latest hard drives cash in of buffering to efficiently access data, and lots of online services also use buffers. for instance , buffers are frequently utilized in online video streaming to stop interruption. When a video is streamed, the video player downloads and stores perhaps 20% of the video at a time during a buffer then streams from that buffer. This way, minor drops in connection speed or quick service disruptions wonâ€™t affect the video stream performance.Buffers are designed to contain specific amounts of knowledge . Unless the program utilizing the buffer has built-in instructions to discard data when an excessive amount of is shipped to the buffer, the program will overwrite data in memory adjacent to the buffer.Buffer overflows are often exploited by attackers to corrupt software. Despite being well-understood, buffer overflow attacks are still a serious security problem that torment cyber-security teams. In 2014 a threat referred to as â€˜heartbleedâ€™ exposed many many users to attack due to a buffer overflow vulnerability in SSL software.
How do attackers exploit buffer overflows?An attacker can deliberately feed a carefully crafted input into a program which will cause the program to undertake and store that input during a buffer that isnâ€™t large enough, overwriting portions of memory connected to the buffer space. If the memory layout of the program is well-defined, the attacker can deliberately overwrite areas known to contain executable code. The attacker can then replace this code together with his own executable code, which may drastically change how the program is meant to figure .For example if the overwritten part in memory contains a pointer (an object that points to a different place in memory) the attackerâ€™s code could replace that code with another pointer that points to an exploit payload. this will transfer control of the entire program over to theattackerâ€™s code.
You are working as a Security Analyst in a company XYZ that owns the whole subnet range of 184.108.40.206/8 and 192.168.0.0/8.
While monitoring the data, you find a high number of outbound connections. You see that IPâ€™s owned by XYZ (Internal) and private IPâ€™s are communicating to a Single Public IP. Therefore, the Internal IPâ€™s are sending data to the Public IP.
After further analysis, you find out that this Public IP is a blacklisted IP, and the internal communicating devices are compromised.
What kind of attack does the above scenario depict?
Jack, a professional hacker, targets an organization and performs vulnerability scanning on the target web server to identify any possible weaknesses, vulnerabilities, and misconfigurations. In this process, Jack uses an automated tool that eases his work and performs vulnerability scanning to find hosts, services, and other vulnerabilities in the target server. Which of the following tools is used by Jack to perform vulnerability scanning?
Don, a student, came across a gaming app in a third-party app store and Installed it. Subsequently, all the legitimate apps in his smartphone were replaced by deceptive applications that appeared legitimate. He also received many advertisements on his smartphone after Installing the app. What is the attack performed on Don in the above scenario?
Agent Smith Attack
Agent Smith attacks are carried out by luring victims into downloading and installing malicious
apps designed and published by attackers in the form of games, photo editors, or other
attractive tools from third-party app stores such as 9Apps. Once the user has installed the app,
the core malicious code inside the application infects or replaces the legitimate apps in the
victim's mobile device C&C commands. The deceptive application replaces legitimate apps such
as WhatsApp, SHAREit, and MX Player with similar infected versions. The application sometimes
also appears to be an authentic Google product such as Google Updater or Themes. The
attacker then produces a massive volume of irrelevant and fraudulent advertisements on the
victim's device through the infected app for financial gain. Attackers exploit these apps to steal
critical information such as personal information, credentials, and bank details, from the
victim's mobile device through C&C commands.
Richard, an attacker, targets an MNC In this process, he uses a footprinting technique to gather as much information as possible. Using this technique, he gathers domain information such as the target domain name, contact details of its owner, expiry date, and creation date. With this information, he creates a map of the organization's network and misleads domain owners with social engineering to obtain internal details of its network. What type of footprinting technique is employed by Richard?
What tool can crack Windows SMB passwords simply by listening to network traffic?
Which of the following LM hashes represent a password of less than 8 characters? (Choose two.)
You are a penetration tester working to test the user awareness of the employees of the client xyz. You harvested two employees' emails from some public sources and are creating a client-side backdoor to send it to the employees via email. Which stage of the cyber kill chain are you at?
The adversary analyzes the data collected in the previous stage to identify the
vulnerabilities and techniques that can exploit and gain unauthorized access to the
target organization. Based on the vulnerabilities identified during analysis, the adversary
selects or creates a tailored deliverable malicious payload (remote-access malware
weapon) using an exploit and a backdoor to send it to the victim. An adversary may
target specific network devices, operating systems, endpoint devices, or even
individuals within the organization to carry out their attack. For example, the adversary
may send a phishing email to an employee of the target organization, which may include a malicious attachment such as a virus or worm that, when downloaded, installs a backdoor on the system that allows remote access to the adversary. The following are the activities of the adversary: o Identifying appropriate malware payload based on the analysis o Creating a new malware payload or selecting, reusing, modifying the available malware payloads based on the identified vulnerability
o Creating a phishing email campaign o Leveraging exploit kits and botnets
Ricardo has discovered the username for an application in his targets environment. As he has a limited amount of time, he decides to attempt to use a list of common passwords he found on the Internet. He compiles them into a list and then feeds that list as an argument into his password-cracking application, what type of attack is Ricardo performing?
A dictionary Attack as an attack vector utilized by the attacker to break in a very system, that is password protected, by golf shot technically each word in a very dictionary as a variety of password for that system. This attack vector could be a variety of Brute Force Attack.
The lexicon will contain words from an English dictionary and conjointly some leaked list of commonly used passwords and once combined with common character substitution with numbers, will generally be terribly effective and quick.
How is it done?
Basically, itâ€™s attempting each single word thatâ€™s already ready. itâ€™s done victimization machine-controlled tools that strive all the possible words within the dictionary.
Some password Cracking Software:
â€¢ John the ripper
Susan, a software developer, wants her web API to update other applications with the latest information. For this purpose, she uses a user-defined HTTP tailback or push APIs that are raised based on trigger events: when invoked, this feature supplies data to other applications so that users can instantly receive real-time Information.
Which of the following techniques is employed by Susan?
Webhooks are one of a few ways internet applications will communicate with one another.
It allows you to send real-time data from one application to another whenever a given event happens.
For example, letâ€™s say youâ€™ve created an application using the Foursquare API that tracks when people check into your restaurant. You ideally wish to be able to greet customers by name and provide a complimentary drink when they check in.
What a webhook will is notify you any time someone checks in, therefore youâ€™d be able to run any processes that you simply had in your application once this event is triggered.
The data is then sent over the web from the application wherever the event originally occurred, to the receiving application that handles the data.
Hereâ€™s a visual representation of what that looks like:
A webhook url is provided by the receiving application, and acts as a phone number that the other application will call once an event happens.
Only itâ€™s more complicated than a phone number, because data about the event is shipped to the webhook url in either JSON or XML format. this is known as the â€œpayload.â€
Hereâ€™s an example of what a webhook url looks like with the payload itâ€™s carrying:
What are Webhooks? Webhooks are user-defined HTTP callback or push APIs that are raised based on events triggered, such as comment received on a post and pushing code to the registry. A webhook allows an application to update other applications with the latest information. Once invoked, it supplies data to the other applications, which means that users instantly receive real-time information. Webhooks are sometimes called â€œReverse APIsâ€ as they provide what is required for API specification, and the developer should create an API to use a webhook. A webhook is an API concept that is also used to send text messages and notifications to mobile numbers or email addresses from an application when a specific event is triggered. For instance, if you search for something in the online store and the required item is out of stock, you click on the â€œNotify meâ€ bar to get an alert from the application when that item is available for purchase. These notifications from the applications are usually sent through webhooks.
Sam, a web developer, was instructed to incorporate a hybrid encryption software program into a web application to secure email messages. Sam used an encryption software, which is a free implementation of the OpenPGP standard that uses both symmetric-key cryptography and asymmetric-key cryptography for improved speed and secure key exchange. What is the encryption software employed by Sam for securing the email messages?
James is working as an ethical hacker at Technix Solutions. The management ordered James to discover how vulnerable its network is towards footprinting attacks. James took the help of an open-source framework for performing automated reconnaissance activities. This framework helped James in gathering information using free tools and resources. What is the framework used by James to conduct footprinting and reconnaissance activities?
Louis, a professional hacker, had used specialized tools or search engines to encrypt all his browsing activity and navigate anonymously to obtain sensitive/hidden information about official government or federal databases. After gathering the Information, he successfully performed an attack on the target government organization without being traced. Which of the following techniques is described in the above scenario?
The deep web is the layer of the online cyberspace that consists of web pages and content that are hidden and unindexed.
You have compromised a server on a network and successfully opened a shell. You aimed to identify all operating systems running on the network. However, as you attempt to fingerprint all machines in the network using the nmap syntax below, it is not going through.
invictus@victim_server.~$ nmap -T4 -O 10.10.0.0/24 TCP/IP fingerprinting (for OS scan) xxxxxxx xxxxxx xxxxxxxxx. QUITTING!
What seems to be wrong?
Bob is going to perform an active session hijack against Brownies Inc. He has found a target that allows session oriented connections (Telnet) and performs the sequence prediction on the target operating system. He manages to find an active session due to the high level of traffic on the network. What is Bob supposed to do next?
Chandler works as a pen-tester in an IT-firm in New York. As a part of detecting viruses in the systems, he uses a detection method where the anti-virus executes the malicious codes on a virtual machine to simulate CPU and memory activities. Which type of virus detection method did Chandler use in this context?
While using your bankâ€™s online servicing you notice the following string in the URL bar:
â€œhttp: // www. MyPersonalBank. com/ account?id=368940911028389 &Damount=10980&Camount=21â€
You observe that if you modify the Damount & Camount values and submit the request, that data on the web page reflects the changes.
Which type of vulnerability is present on this site?
The network team has well-established procedures to follow for creating new rules on the firewall. This includes having approval from a manager prior to implementing any new rules. While reviewing the firewall configuration, you notice a recently implemented rule but cannot locate manager approval for it. What would be a good step to have in the procedures for a situation like this?
in this attack, an adversary tricks a victim into reinstalling an already-in-use key. This is achieved by manipulating and replaying cryptographic handshake messages. When the victim reinstall the key, associated parameters such as the incremental transmit packet number and receive packet number are reset to their initial values. What is this attack called?
In this attack KRACK is an acronym for Key Reinstallation Attack. KRACK may be a severe replay attack on Wi-Fi Protected Access protocol (WPA2), which secures your Wi-Fi connection. Hackers use KRACK to take advantage of a vulnerability in WPA2. When in close range of a possible victim, attackers can access and skim encrypted data using KRACK.
How KRACK WorksYour Wi-Fi client uses a four-way handshake when attempting to attach to a protected network. The handshake confirms that both the client â€” your smartphone, laptop, et cetera â€” and therefore the access point share the right credentials, usually a password for the network. This establishes the Pairwise passkey (PMK), which allows for encoding .Overall, this handshake procedure allows for quick logins and connections and sets up a replacement encryption key with each connection. this is often what keeps data secure on Wi-Fi connections, and every one protected Wi-Fi connections use the four-way handshake for security. This protocol is that the reason users are encouraged to use private or credential-protected Wi-Fi instead of public connections.KRACK affects the third step of the handshake, allowing the attacker to control and replay the WPA2 encryption key to trick it into installing a key already in use. When the keyâ€™s reinstalled, other parameters related to it â€” the incremental transmit packet number called the nonce and therefore the replay counter â€” are set to their original values.Rather than move to the fourth step within the four-way handshake, nonce resets still replay transmissions of the third step. This sets up the encryption protocol for attack, and counting on how the attackers replay the third-step transmissions, they will take down Wi-Fi security.
Why KRACK may be a ThreatThink of all the devices you employ that believe Wi-Fi. it isnâ€™t almost laptops and smartphones; numerous smart devices now structure the web of Things (IoT). due to the vulnerability in WPA2, everything connected to Wi-Fi is in danger of being hacked or hijacked.Attackers using KRACK can gain access to usernames and passwords also as data stored on devices. Hackers can read emails and consider photos of transmitted data then use that information to blackmail users or sell it on the Dark Web.Theft of stored data requires more steps, like an HTTP content injection to load malware into the system. Hackers could conceivably take hold of any device used thereon Wi-Fi connection. Because the attacks require hackers to be on the brink of the target, these internet security threats could also cause physical security threats.On the opposite hand, the necessity to be in close proximity is that the only excellent news associated with KRACK, as meaning a widespread attack would be extremely difficult.Victims are specifically targeted. However, there are concerns that a experienced attacker could develop the talents to use HTTP content injection to load malware onto websites to make a more widespread affect.
Everyone is in danger from KRACK vulnerability. Patches are available for Windows and iOS devices, but a released patch for Android devices is currently in question (November 2017). There are issues with the discharge , and lots of question if all versions and devices are covered.The real problem is with routers and IoT devices. These devices arenâ€™t updated as regularly as computer operating systems, and for several devices, security flaws got to be addressed on the manufacturing side. New devices should address KRACK, but the devices you have already got in your home probably arenâ€™t protected.
The best protection against KRACK is to make sure any device connected to Wi-Fi is patched and updated with the newest firmware. that has checking together with your routerâ€™s manufacturer periodically to ascertain if patches are available.
The safest connection option may be a private VPN, especially when publicly spaces. If you would like a VPN for private use, avoid free options, as they need their own security problems and thereâ€™ll even be issues with HTTPs. Use a paid service offered by a trusted vendor like Kaspersky. Also, more modern networks use WPA3 for better security.Avoid using public Wi-Fi, albeit itâ€™s password protection. That password is out there to almost anyone, which reduces the safety level considerably.All the widespread implications of KRACK and therefore the WPA2 vulnerability arenâ€™t yet clear. whatâ€™s certain is that everybody who uses Wi-Fi is in danger and wishes to require precautions to guard their data and devices.
Which Intrusion Detection System is the best applicable for large environments where critical assets on the network need extra scrutiny and is ideal for observing sensitive network segments?
Clark, a professional hacker, was hired by an organization lo gather sensitive Information about its competitors surreptitiously. Clark gathers the server IP address of the target organization using Whole footprinting. Further, he entered the server IP address as an input to an online tool to retrieve information such as the network range of the target organization and to identify the network topology and operating system used in the network. What is the online tool employed by Clark in the above scenario?
What port number is used by LDAP protocol?
What is not a PCI compliance recommendation?
Which of the following is a passive wireless packet analyzer that works on Linux-based systems?
Allen, a professional pen tester, was hired by xpertTech solutWns to perform an attack simulation on the organization's network resources. To perform the attack, he took advantage of the NetBIOS API and targeted the NetBIOS service. B/enumerating NetBIOS, he found that port 139 was open and could see the resources that could be accessed or viewed on a remote system. He came across many NetBIOS codes during enumeration.
identify the NetBIOS code used for obtaining the messenger service running for the logged-in user?
<03>Windows Messenger administrationCourier administration is an organization based framework notice Windows administration by Microsoft that was remembered for some prior forms of Microsoft Windows.
This resigned innovation, despite the fact that it has a comparable name, isnâ€™t connected in any capacity to the later, Internet-based Microsoft Messenger administration for texting or to Windows Messenger and Windows Live Messenger (earlier named MSN Messenger) customer programming.
The Messenger Service was initially intended for use by framework managers to tell Windows clients about their networks. It has been utilized malevolently to introduce spring up commercials to clients over the Internet (by utilizing mass-informing frameworks which sent an ideal message to a predetermined scope of IP addresses). Despite the fact that Windows XP incorporates a firewall, it isnâ€™t empowered naturally. Along these lines, numerous clients got such messages. Because of this maltreatment, the Messenger Service has been debilitated as a matter of course in Windows XP Service Pack 2.
What type of analysis is performed when an attacker has partial knowledge of inner-workings of the application?
â€œ........is an attack type for a rogue Wi-Fi access point that appears to be a legitimate one offered on the premises, but actually has been set up to eavesdrop on wireless communications. It is the wireless version of the phishing scam. An attacker fools wireless users into connecting a laptop or mobile phone to a tainted hot-spot by posing as a legitimate provider. This type of attack may be used to steal the passwords of
unsuspecting users by either snooping the communication link or by phishing, which involves setting up a fraudulent web site and luring people there.â€
Fill in the blank with appropriate choice.
Jake, a professional hacker, installed spyware on a target iPhone to spy on the target user's activities. He can take complete control of the target mobile device by jailbreaking the device remotely and record audio, capture screenshots, and monitor all phone calls and SMS messages. What is the type of spyware that Jake used to infect the target device?
Which Nmap option would you use if you were not concerned about being detected and wanted to perform a very fast scan?
Attacker Simon targeted the communication network of an organization and disabled the security controls of NetNTLMvl by modifying the values of LMCompatibilityLevel, NTLMMinClientSec, and RestrictSendingNTLMTraffic. He then extracted all the non-network logon tokens from all the active processes to masquerade as a legitimate user to launch further attacks. What is the type of attack performed by Simon?
An attacker with access to the inside network of a small company launches a successful STP manipulation attack. What will he do next?
An attacker runs netcat tool to transfer a secret file between two hosts.
He is worried about information being sniffed on the network.
How would the attacker use netcat to encrypt the information before transmitting onto the wire?
To create a botnet. the attacker can use several techniques to scan vulnerable machines. The attacker first collects Information about a large number of vulnerable machines to create a list. Subsequently, they infect the machines. The list Is divided by assigning half of the list to the newly compromised machines. The scanning process runs simultaneously. This technique ensures the spreading and installation of malicious code in little time.
Which technique is discussed here?
One of the biggest problems a worm faces in achieving a very fast rate of infection is â€œgetting off the ground.â€ although a worm spreads exponentially throughout the early stages of infection, the time needed to infect say the first 10,000 hosts dominates the infection time.
There is a straightforward way for an active worm a simple this obstacle, that we term hit-list scanning. Before the worm is free, the worm author collects a listing of say ten,000 to 50,000 potentially vulnerable machines, ideally ones with sensible network connections. The worm, when released onto an initial machine on this hit-list, begins scanning down the list. once it infects a machine, it divides the hit-list in half, communicating half to the recipient worm, keeping the other half.
This fast division ensures that even if only 10-20% of the machines on the hit-list are actually vulnerable, an active worm can quickly bear the hit-list and establish itself on all vulnerable machines in only some seconds. though the hit-list could begin at 200 kilobytes, it quickly shrinks to nothing during the partitioning. This provides a great benefit in constructing a quick worm by speeding the initial infection.
The hit-list neednâ€™t be perfect: a simple list of machines running a selected server sort could serve, though larger accuracy can improve the unfold. The hit-list itself is generated victimization one or many of the following techniques, ready well before, typically with very little concern of detection.
You just set up a security system in your network. In what kind of system would you find the following string of characters used as a rule within its configuration? alert tcp any any -> 192.168.100.0/24 21 (msg: â€œâ€œFTP on the network!â€â€;)
ViruXine.W32 virus hides their presence by changing the underlying executable code.
This Virus code mutates while keeping the original algorithm intact, the code changes itself each time it runs, but the function of the code (its semantics) will not change at all.
Here is a section of the Virus code:
What is this technique called?
An attacker scans a host with the below command. Which three flags are set?
# nmap -sX host.domain.com
The tools which receive event logs from servers, network equipment, and applications, and perform analysis and correlation on those logs, and can generate alarms for security relevant issues, are known as what?
During the process of encryption and decryption, what keys are shared?
Under what conditions does a secondary name server request a zone transfer from a primary name server?
Samuel, a professional hacker, monitored and Intercepted already established traffic between Bob and a host machine to predict Bob's ISN. Using this ISN, Samuel sent spoofed packets with Bob's IP address to the host machine. The host machine responded with <| packet having an Incremented ISN. Consequently. Bob's connection got hung, and Samuel was able to communicate with the host machine on behalf of Bob. What is the type of attack performed by Samuel in the above scenario?
A TCP/IP hijack is an attack that spoofs a server into thinking itâ€™s talking with a sound client, once actually itâ€™s communication with an assaulter that has condemned (or hijacked) the tcp session. Assume that the client has administrator-level privileges, which the attacker needs to steal that authority so as to form a brand new account with root-level access of the server to be used afterward. A tcp Hijacking is sort of a two-phased man-in-the-middle attack. The man-in-the-middle assaulter lurks within the circuit between a shopper and a server so as to work out what port and sequence numbers are being employed for the conversation.
First, the attacker knocks out the client with an attack, like Ping of Death, or ties it up with some reasonably ICMP storm. This renders the client unable to transmit any packets to the server. Then, with the client crashed, the attacker assumes the clientâ€™s identity so as to talk with the server. By this suggests, the attacker gains administrator-level access to the server.
One of the most effective means of preventing a hijack attack is to want a secret, thatâ€™s a shared secret between the shopper and also the server. looking on the strength of security desired, the key may be used for random exchanges. this is often once a client and server periodically challenge each other, or it will occur with each exchange, like Kerberos.
An attacker can employ many methods to perform social engineering against unsuspecting employees, including scareware.
What is the best example of a scareware attack?
A new wireless client is configured to join a 802.11 network. This client uses the same hardware and software as many of the other clients on the network. The client can see the network, but cannot connect. A wireless packet sniffer shows that the Wireless Access Point (WAP) is not responding to the association requests being sent by the wireless client. What is a possible source of this problem?
Which tool can be used to silently copy files from USB devices?
Which Metasploit Framework tool can help penetration tester for evading Anti-virus Systems?
Given below are different steps involved in the vulnerability-management life cycle.
2) Identify assets and create a baseline
5) Vulnerability scan
6) Risk assessment
Identify the correct sequence of steps involved in vulnerability management.
Which of the following incident handling process phases is responsible for defining rules, collaborating human workforce, creating a back-up plan, and testing the plans for an organization?
Identify the UDP port that Network Time Protocol (NTP) uses as its primary means of communication?
A newly joined employee. Janet, has been allocated an existing system used by a previous employee. Before issuing the system to Janet, it was assessed by Martin, the administrator. Martin found that there were possibilities of compromise through user directories, registries, and other system parameters. He also Identified vulnerabilities such as native configuration tables, incorrect registry or file permissions, and software configuration errors. What is the type of vulnerability assessment performed by Martin?
The host-based vulnerability assessment (VA) resolution arose from the auditorsâ€™ got to periodically review systems. Arising before the net becoming common, these tools typically take an â€œadministratorâ€™s eyeâ€ read of the setting by evaluating all of the knowledge that an administrator has at his or her disposal.
UsesHost VA tools verify system configuration, user directories, file systems, registry settings, and all forms of other info on a number to gain information about it. Then, it evaluates the chance of compromise. it should also live compliance to a predefined company policy so as to satisfy an annual audit. With administrator access, the scans area unit less possible to disrupt traditional operations since the computer code has the access it has to see into the complete configuration of the system.
What it Measures Host
VA tools will examine the native configuration tables and registries to spot not solely apparent vulnerabilities, however additionally â€œdormantâ€ vulnerabilities â€“ those weak or misconfigured systems and settings which will be exploited when an initial entry into the setting. Host VA solutions will assess the safety settings of a user account table; the access management lists related to sensitive files or data; and specific levels of trust applied to other systems. The host VA resolution will a lot of accurately verify the extent of the danger by determinant however way any specific exploit could also be ready to get.
In order to tailor your tests during a web-application scan, you decide to determine which web-server version is hosting the application. On using the sV flag with Nmap. you obtain the following response:
80/tcp open http-proxy Apache Server 7.1.6
what Information-gathering technique does this best describe?
Banner grabbing is a technique wont to gain info about a computer system on a network and the services running on its open ports. administrators will use this to take inventory of the systems and services on their network. However, an to find will use banner grabbing so as to search out network hosts that are running versions of applications and operating systems with known exploits.
Some samples of service ports used for banner grabbing are those used by Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP); ports 80, 21, and 25 severally. Tools normally used to perform banner grabbing are Telnet, nmap and Netcat.
For example, one may establish a connection to a target internet server using Netcat, then send an HTTP request. The response can usually contain info about the service running on the host:
Graphical user interface, text, application Description automatically generated
This information may be used by an administrator to catalog this system, or by an intruder to narrow down a list of applicable exploits.To prevent this, network administrators should restrict access to services on their networks and shut down unused or unnecessary services running on network hosts.Â ShodanÂ is a search engine for banners grabbed from portscanning the Internet.
MX record priority increases as the number increases. (True/False.)
Lewis, a professional hacker, targeted the loT cameras and devices used by a target venture-capital firm. He used an information-gathering tool to collect information about the loT devices connected to a network, open ports and services, and the attack surface area. Using this tool, he also generated statistical reports on broad usage patterns and trends. This tool helped Lewis continually monitor every reachable server and device on the Internet, further allowing him to exploit these devices in the network. Which of the following tools was employed by Lewis in the above scenario?
Censys scans help the scientific community accurately study the Internet. The data is sometimes used to detect security problems and to inform operators of vulnerable systems so that they can fixed
Clark is a professional hacker. He created and configured multiple domains pointing to the same host to switch quickly between the domains and avoid detection.
Identify the behavior of the adversary In the above scenario.
A proxy server acts as a gateway between you and therefore the internet. Itâ€™s an intermediary server separating end users from the websites they browse. Proxy servers provide varying levels of functionality, security, and privacy counting on your use case, needs, or company policy.If youâ€™re employing a proxy server, internet traffic flows through the proxy server on its thanks to the address you requested. A proxy server is essentially a computer on the web with its own IP address that your computer knows. once you send an internet request, your request goes to the proxy server first. The proxy server then makes your web request on your behalf, collects the response from the online server, and forwards you the online page data so youâ€™ll see the page in your browser.
You want to do an ICMP scan on a remote computer using hping2. What is the proper syntax?
An LDAP directory can be used to store information similar to a SQL database. LDAP uses a _____ database structure instead of SQLâ€™s _____ structure. Because of this, LDAP has difficulty representing many-to-one relationships.
Which of the following statements about a zone transfer is correct? (Choose three.)
While scanning with Nmap, Patin found several hosts which have the IP ID of incremental sequences. He then decided to conduct: nmap -Pn -p- -si kiosk.adobe.com www.riaa.com. kiosk.adobe.com is the host with incremental IP ID sequence. What is the purpose of using "-si" with Nmap?
Once a suitable zombie has been found, performing a scan is easy. Simply specify the zombie hostname to the -sI option and Nmap does the rest. Example 5.19 shows an example of Ereet scanning the Recording Industry Association of America by bouncing an idle scan off an Adobe machine named Kiosk.
Example 5.19. An idle scan against the RIAA
# nmap -Pn -p- -sIÂ kiosk.adobe.comÂ www.riaa.com
Starting Nmap (Â http://nmap.org Â )
Idlescan using zombieÂ kiosk.adobe.comÂ (220.127.116.11:80); Class: Incremental
Nmap scan report for 18.104.22.168
(The 65522 ports scanned but not shown below are in state: closed)
PortÂ Â Â Â Â Â StateÂ Â Â Â Â Â Service
21/tcpÂ Â Â Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â ftp
25/tcpÂ Â Â Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â smtp
80/tcpÂ Â Â Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â http
111/tcpÂ Â Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â sunrpc
135/tcpÂ Â Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â loc-srv
443/tcpÂ Â Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â https
1027/tcpÂ Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â IIS
1030/tcpÂ Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â iad1
2306/tcpÂ Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â unknown
5631/tcpÂ Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â pcanywheredata
7937/tcpÂ Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â unknown
7938/tcpÂ Â openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â unknown
36890/tcpÂ openÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â unknown
Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 2594.47 seconds
Which of the following tactics uses malicious code to redirect users' web traffic?
You have retrieved the raw hash values from a Windows 2000 Domain Controller. Using social engineering, you come to know that they are enforcing strong passwords. You understand that all users are required to use passwords that are at least 8 characters in length. All passwords must also use 3 of the 4 following categories: lower case letters, capital letters, numbers and special characters. With your existing knowledge of users, likely user account names and the possibility that they will choose the easiest passwords possible, what would be the fastest type of password cracking attack you can run against these hash values and still get results?
This is an attack that takes advantage of a web site vulnerability in which the site displays content that includes un-sanitized user-provided data.
What is this attack?
Fingerprinting an Operating System helps a cracker because:
Session splicing is an IDS evasion technique in which an attacker delivers data in multiple, small sized packets to the target computer, making it very difficult for an IDS to detect the attack signatures. Which tool can be used to perform session splicing attacks?
Which of the following tools can be used to perform a zone transfer?
In this attack, a victim receives an e-mail claiming from PayPal stating that their account has been disabled and confirmation is required before activation. The attackers then scam to collect not one but two credit card numbers, ATM PIN number and other personal details. Ignorant users usually fall prey to this scam.
Which of the following statement is incorrect related to this attack?
_________ is a type of phishing that targets high-profile executives such as CEOs, CFOs, politicians, and celebrities who have access to confidential and highly valuable information.
You work for Acme Corporation as Sales Manager. The company has tight network security restrictions. You are trying to steal data from the company's Sales database (Sales.xls) and transfer them to your home computer. Your company filters and monitors traffic that leaves from the internal network to the Internet. How will you achieve this without raising suspicion?
To determine if a software program properly handles a wide range of invalid input, a form of automated testing can be used to randomly generate invalid input in an attempt to crash the program.
What term is commonly used when referring to this type of testing?
Which of the following tools is used to detect wireless LANs using the 802.11a/b/g/n WLAN standards on a linux platform?
Sam is a penetration tester hired by Inception Tech, a security organization. He was asked to perform port scanning on a target host in the network. While performing the given task, Sam sends FIN/ACK probes and determines that an RST packet is sent in response by the target host, indicating that the port is closed.
What is the port scanning technique used by Sam to discover open ports?
TCP Maimon scan
This scan technique is very similar to NULL, FIN, and Xmas scan, but the probe used here is
FIN/ACK. In most cases, to determine if the port is open or closed, the RST packet should be generated as a response to a probe request. However, in many BSD systems, the port is open if the packet gets dropped in response to a probe.
How Nmap interprets responses to a Maimon scan probe
Probe Response Assigned State
No response received (even after retransmissions) open|filtered
TCP RST packet closed
ICMP unreachable error (type 3, code 1, 2, 3, 9, 10, or 13) filtered
in the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) v3.1 severity ratings, what range does medium vulnerability fall in?
To reach a bank web site, the traffic from workstations must pass through a firewall. You have been asked to review the firewall configuration to ensure that workstations in network 10.10.10.0/24 can only reach the bank web site 10.20.20.1 using https. Which of the following firewall rules meets this requirement?
Which of the following are well known password-cracking programs?
Which of the following programming languages is most susceptible to buffer overflow attacks, due to its lack of a built-in bounds checking mechanism?
strcpy(buffer, â€œâ€œ11111111111111111111111111111â€â€);} Output: Segmentation fault
John, a professional hacker, targeted CyberSol Inc., an MNC. He decided to discover the loT devices connected in the target network that are using default credentials and are vulnerable to various hijacking attacks. For this purpose, he used an automated tool to scan the target network for specific types of loT devices and detect whether they are using the default, factory-set credentials. What is the tool employed by John in the above scenario?